Treatment and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia jump to: navigation, search     it has been suggested that this article or section be merged into renal cell carcinoma. (discuss) proposed since november 2010. The two steps that follow a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (rcc) are treatment and prognosis. Traditional cancer treatments such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy are not effective with this type of cancer, so these are not used in metastatic renal cell carcinoma treatment. Some cases of carcinoma do respond well to immunotherapy. Medications that work for this kind of treatment include sunitinib, bevacizumab, interferon-alpha, and sorafenib. [1] the most recommended treatment for renal cell cancer is nephrectomy, surgical removal of all or part of the kidney. buy online viagra This may include the bladder or surrounding tissues or lymph nodes. Hormone treatments may help reduce tumor growth in specific cases. Chemotherapy, on the other hand, is generally not effective for treating this carcinoma. The drug interleukin-2 (il-2), have helped some patients allowing the immune system to kill the cancer cells, although it has proven to be toxic in many cases. viagra online generic [2] percutaneous and image-guided therapies are an option for people who are not good candidates for a surgical procedure. Survival rates are often used by doctors as a standard way of discussing a person's outlook. The 5-year survival rate defines the percentage of patients who live at least 5 years after renal cell cancer is diagnosed. Contents 1 treatment 1. 1 watchful waiting 1. 2 surgery 1. 3 percutaneous therapies 1. 4 medications 1. 5 chemotherapy 1. 6 vaccine 2 prognosis 3 references [edit] treatment if it is only in the kidneys, which is about 40% of cases, it can be cured roughly 90% of the time with surgery. buy generic soft tab viagra If it has spread outside of the kidneys, often into the lymph nodes or the main vein of the kidney, then it must be treated with adjunctive therapy, including cytoreductive surgery. Rcc is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in most cases, but does respond well to immunotherapy with interleukin-2 or interferon-alpha, biologic, or targeted therapy. In early stage cases, cryotherapy and surgery are the preferred options. [edit] watchful waiting small renal tumors (< 4 cm) are treated increasingly by way of partial nephrectomy when possible. viagra online generic [3] [4] [5] most of these small renal masses manifest indolent biological behavior with excellent prognosis. [6] more centers of excellence are incorporating needle biopsy to confirm the presence of malignant histology prior to recommending definitive surgical extirpation. In the elderly, patients with co-morbidities and in poor surgical candidates, small renal tumors may be monitored carefully with serial imaging. Most clinicians conservatively follow tumors up to a size threshold between 3–5 cm, beyond which the risk of distant spread (metastases) is about 5%. cheap no prescription viagra [edit] surgery micrograph of embolic material in a kidney removed because of renal cell carcinoma (cancer not shown). H&e stain. Surgical removal of all or part of the kidney (nephrectomy) is recommended. [7] this may include removal of the adrenal gland, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and possibly tissues involved by direct extension (invasion) of the tumor into the surrounding tissues. In cases where the tumor has spread into the renal vein, inferior vena cava, and possibly the right atrium, this portion of the tumor can be surgically removed, as well. In cases of known metastases, surgical resection of the kidney ("cytoreductive nephrectomy") may improve survival, [8] as well as resection of a solitary metastatic lesion. generic viagra price Kidneys are sometimes embolized prior to surgery to minimize blood loss [9] (see image). Surgery is increasingly performed via laparoscopic techniques. These have the advantage of being less of a burden for the patient and the disease-free survival is comparable to that of open surgery. [7] for small exophytic lesions that do not extensively involve the major vessels or urinary collecting system, a partial nephrectomy (also referred to as "nephron sparing surgery") can be performed. This may involve temporarily stopping blood flow to the kidney while the mass is removed as well as renal cooling with an ice slush. viagra online generic Mannitol can also be administered to help limit damage to the kidney. This is usually done through an open incision although smaller lesions can be done laparoscopically with or without robotic assistance. low price viagra Laparoscopic cryotherapy can also be done on smaller lesions. viagra online generic Typically a biopsy is taken at the time of treatment. generic viagra lowest price Intraoperative ultrasound may be used to help guide placement of the freezing probes. Two freeze/thaw cycles are then performed to kill the tumor cells. viagra no prescription As the tumor is not removed followup is more complicated (see below) and overall disease free rates are not as good as those obtained with surgical removal. [edit] percutaneous therapies percutaneous, image-guided therapies, usually managed by radiologists, are being offered to patients with localized tumor, but who are not good candidates for a surgical procedure. This sort of procedure involves placing a probe through the skin and into the tumor using real-time imaging of both the probe tip and the tumor by computed tomography, ultrasound, or even magnetic resonance imaging guidance, and then destroying the tumor with heat (radiofrequency ablation) or cold (cryotherapy). These modalities are at a disadvantage compared to traditional surgery in that pathologic confirmation of complete tumor destruction is not possible. Therefore,.